Eight new South American species of Palicourea are described and illustrated: P. crystallina from north-central Peru differs from P. loxensis from Ecuador, also described herein, by its longer calyx limbs, 1.2–2.5 mm long, with the lobes often unequal in length; P. cutucuana from southern Ecuador differs from P. angustifolia in its broader leaves and inflorescences and larger corollas; P. gelsemiiflora of northern Peru is distinguished by its pedicels 11–20 mm long, calyx limbs 7–11 mm long, relatively large yellow corollas with tubes 32–33 mm long, relatively large fruits 12–13 mm long, and pyrenes with an unusual spongy wall; P. gemmiflora of southern Ecuador and northern Peru differs from P. subtomentosa by its longer corollas with horn-like projections on the abaxial surfaces of the lobes; P. lemoniana of southwestern Venezuela differs from P. nitidella by its corolla tubes 17–18 mm long with the lobes pubescent abaxially and from P. grandiflora by its secondary leaf veins only 7–10 pairs and corollas externally with lanose trichomes to 0.5 mm long; P. loxensis of southern Ecuador differs from P. garciae by its densely reticulated secondary and tertiary leaf venation, membranaceous stipules, and sessile rather than pedicellate flowers; P. otongaensis of north-central Ecuador differs from P. holmgrenii by its longer corollas with well developed horn-like appendages borne on the abaxial surfaces of the lobes; and P. smithiana of central Peru differs from P. lobbii by its laminar stipules with obtuse to rounded lobes only 0.5–1 mm long, yellow corollas, and pyrenes that are ridged dorsally.
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