Chromosome numbers for a total of 54 individuals representing 13 genera and 40 species of Cactaceae, mostly in tribe Trichocereeae, are reported. Five additional taxa examined belong to subfamily Opuntioideae and other tribes of Cactoideae (Browningieae, Pachycereeae, Notocacteae, and Cereeae). Among Trichocereeae, counts for 35 taxa in eight genera are reported, with half of these (17 species) for the genus Haageocereus. These are the first chromosome numbers reported for 36 of the 40 taxa examined, as well as the first counts for the genus Haageocereus. Both diploid and polyploid counts were obtained. Twenty nine species were diploid with 2n =2x =22. Polyploid counts were obtained from the genera Espostoa, Cleistocactus, Haageocereus, and Weberbauerocereus; we detected one triploid (2n =3x =33), nine tetraploids (2n =4x =44), one hexaploid (2n =6x =66), and three octoploids (2n =8x =88). In two cases, different counts were recorded for different individuals of the same species (Espostoa lanata, with 2n =22, 44, and 66; and Weberbauerocereus rauhii, with 2n =44 and 88). These are the first reported polyploid counts for Haageocereus, Cleistocactus, and Espostoa. Our counts support the hypothesis that polyploidy and hybridization have played prominent roles in the evolution of Haageocereus, Weberbauerocereus, and other Trichocereeae.
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