White-sand vegetation (WSV) enclaves occur throughout Amazonia. WSV, known in Brazil as campina or campinarana, possesses peculiar floral and faunal communities, different from those in adjacent forests but with biogeographic affinities to those in similar ecosystems far distant. Recent ornithological studies of these ‘islands’ have yielded new taxa for science and enabled a better understanding of the zoogeography of many poorly known species in Amazonia. Here we report the results of an ornithological survey of a campinarana enclave in north-west Rondônia, southern Amazonian Brazil. The area was inventoried three times in 2010–12, totalling 899 net / hours and 110 hours of observations. A total of 171 bird species was identified, belonging to 44 families. Among them, at least nine species are closely associated with WSV: Green-tailed Goldenthroat Polytmus theresiae, White-fringed Antwren Formicivora grisea, Natterer's Slaty Antshrike Thamnophilus stictocephalus, Black Manakin Xenopipo atronitens, Plain-crested Elaenia Elaenia cristata, Pale-bellied Mourner Rhytipterna immunda, Campina Flycatcher Cnemotriccus fuscatus duidae, Plush-crested Jay Cyanocorax chrysops diesingii and Red-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus phoenicius. Approximately 8% of the species recorded are migratory, most of them austral migrants. In addition, body mass and morphometrics of 136 individuals from 55 species are presented. Our results augment ornithological knowledge in Rondônia, aid our understanding of regional zoogeography, and serve as an alert to the need to preserve a region that has suffered severe anthropogenic impacts for >100 years.
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