Examination of the polychelid collections in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology of the Yale Peabody Museum yielded eight species of these deep-sea lobsters, including syntypes of Polycheles nanus (Smith, 1884). Three species are reported for the first time from the New England Sea-mounts: Pentacheles laevis Bate, 1878, P. validus A. Milne Edwards, 1880, and Polycheles talismani (Bouvier, 1917), with all but P. validus being represented in the collections by eryoneicus larvae as well as adults. Polycheles amemiyai Yokoya, 1933, is recorded for the first time from the Philippines and a misidentification of a Belize Polycheles typhlops Heller, 1862, by Boone (1927) is corrected. Additional specimens of Polycheles perarmatus Holthuis, 1952, and P. sculptus Smith, 1880, are reported from the Gulf of Mexico and the western Atlantic. All eryoneicus larvae are identified to species and a discussion of the problems associated with historical records of eryoneicus larvae is provided.
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