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1 April 2016 A Review of the Fossil Record of Turtles of the Clade Pan-Kinosternoidea
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Abstract

Turtles of the total clade Pan-Kinosternoidea have a relatively poor fossil record that extends back to the Late Cretaceous (Campanian). The clade is found only in North America during its early history, but dispersed to Central America no later than the Miocene and to South America no later than the Pleistocene. Ancestral pan-kinosternoids were likely aquatic, bottom-walking omnivores or carnivores that preferred low-energy freshwater habitats. The Pan-Dermatemys lineage is often recovered in more fluvial habitats, and some are specialized to feed on aquatic vegetation. Alternatively, many representatives of Kinosternon evolved specializations (e.g., plastral lobe kinesis) that allowed them to successfully inhabit and disperse across more terrestrial habitats such as savannas and floodplains. A taxonomic review of the group concludes that of 42 named taxa, 27 are nomina valida (including two species of the controversial taxon Planetochelys), 14 are nomina invalida and only one a nomen dubium.

© 2016 Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University. All rights reserved.
Walter G. Joyce and Jason R. Bourque "A Review of the Fossil Record of Turtles of the Clade Pan-Kinosternoidea," Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 57(1), 57-95, (1 April 2016). https://doi.org/10.3374/014.057.0104
Received: 13 November 2015; Accepted: 1 January 2016; Published: 1 April 2016
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