Repeated exposure to estrus synchronization (ES) protocol might have detrimental effects on reproductive function. Therefore, we examined the effects of repeated exposure to a gonadotropin-based ES protocol on hormonal profiles in 47 female Xinong Saanen dairy goats. Goats were randomly assigned to receive an ES protocol either three consecutive times with 14 d interval between each protocol (3 × ES group), or once (1 × ES group) starting concurrently with the third protocol of the 3 × ES group. The estradiol concentrations in 1 × ES group were significantly lesser than those of 3 × ES group at 0, 24, 36, 60 h after controlled internal drug release withdrawal. The progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations did not differ between 1 × ES and 3 × ES groups. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the estrus interval, estrus duration, gestation length, birth weight of kids, and the incidences of estrus, pregnancy, single birth, twinning birth, triplet birth between 1 × ES and 3 × ES groups. Litter size was smaller in goats of the 3 × ES group than in 1 × ES goats, and there were more female offspring in 3 × ES group than 1 × ES group (P < 0.05). The differences in reproductive parameters warrant further investigation in a larger population of goats subjected repeated ES.
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