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7 July 2015 Effect of five desiccants applied alone and in combination with glyphosate in dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
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McNaughton, K. E., Blackshaw, R. E., Waddell, K. A., Gulden, R. H., Sikkema, P. H. and Gillard, C. L. 2015. Effect of five desiccants applied alone and in combination with glyphosate in dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Can. J. Plant Sci. 95: 1235-1242. Application of dry bean desiccants just prior to crop maturity is common practice by Canadian producers. As dry beans are grown for human consumption it is critical that producers pick desiccants that do not affect crop yield, seed quality, or result in desiccant seed residue levels above accepted levels. In this study the efficacy of glyphosate, diquat, glufosinate, carfentrazone, flumioxazin, and saflufenacil as desiccants was examined for navy, cranberry, pinto, and great northern dry bean. Seed herbicide residues were also tested for each of the dry bean classes tested. Navy, cranberry, pinto, and great northern dry bean yields were not impacted by use of the desiccants diquat, carfentrazone, flumioxazin, or saflufenacil when applied at labelled rates and application timings. Additionally, herbicide residues in seed following application remained lower than maximum residue limits (MRL) established by primary Canadian dry bean export partners. Generally, dry bean colour, irrespective of class, was not altered by desiccant use; diquat and flumioxazin caused minor increases in the degree of red and yellow seed pigmentation for cranberry bean only. Although colour differences were noted using a Chroma meter the differences were slight and would not likely be of economic importance. Application of glyphosate did not affect crop yield, and seed residue levels were below MRLs for navy, pinto, and great northern bean. However, seed glyphosate residue levels were above the MRL for cranberry bean when glyphosate was applied alone or tankmixed with carfentrazone, flumioxazin, or saflufenacil. Seed residue levels were also above listed MRLs for some export countries when glufosinate was applied to navy, cranberry, and pinto bean, although crop yield and seed quality remained unaffected. These findings suggest that growers and contractors should avoid using glufosinate as a dry bean desiccant at least for some markets and that care should be taken when selecting glyphosate as a desiccant, especially for cranberry bean. Across all market classes desiccation progress of bean leaf, stem, and pod tissue was slowest when glyphosate and carfentrazone were used.

Kristen E. McNaughton, Robert E. Blackshaw, Kristine A. Waddell, Robert H. Gulden, Peter H. Sikkema, and Chris L. Gillard "Effect of five desiccants applied alone and in combination with glyphosate in dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)," Canadian Journal of Plant Science 95(6), 1235-1242, (7 July 2015).
Received: 16 March 2015; Accepted: 1 June 2015; Published: 7 July 2015

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