Zhang, C. J., Lim, S. H., Kim, J. W., Song, J. S., Yook, M. J., Nah, G., Valverde, N. E. and Kim, D. S. 2015. Quantifying herbicide dose-response and resistance in Echinochloa spp. by measuring root length in growth pouches. Can. J. Plant Sci. 95: 1181-1192. The aim of the presented study was to develop a bioassay for rapid diagnosis of herbicide dose-response and resistance in Echinochloa. Pre-germinated seeds of Echinochloa spp. were incubated in growth pouches (18 cm×16.5 cm) containing herbicide solutions in a range of concentrations. Shoot and root lengths were measured after 6 d of incubation. Dose-responses estimated by measuring root lengths in the growth pouches were well-described by the log-logistic dose-response model and similar to those estimated by a whole-plant assay. Accurate dose-response curves were successfully generated for several herbicides with different modes of action, suggesting that the growth pouch method can be used for herbicide bioassays. The suitability of the growth pouch method for rapid diagnosis of acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor resistance in Echinochloa spp. was also tested. For cyhalofop-butyl, resistant and susceptible biotypes were discriminated at 180-300 mg a.i. L-1 and 80-120 mg a.i. L-1 for barnyardgrass (E. crus-galli) and late watergrass (E. oryzicola), respectively. For penoxsulam, the discriminatory dosage was 350-500 mg a.i. L-1 for barnyardgrass and 650-1000 mg a.i. L-1 for late watergrass. The method was further used to identify late watergrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to two other ALS inhibitors, azimsulfuron and bispyribac-sodium. Our results show that the growth pouch method can be reliably used in herbicide dose-response studies and to diagnose herbicide resistance in Echinochloa spp., with significant time and cost savings compared with conventional whole-plant assays.
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