Soil phosphorus (P) availability may be impacted by management practices, thereby affecting plant P uptake and plant response to P amendments. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term management on soil P pools and to assess the response of P bioavailability, plant growth, and P uptake to mineral versus manure P treatments. Soils were collected from plots under organic (ORG), organic with composted manure (ORG + M), conventional (CONV), and restored prairie (PRA) management. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) seedlings were grown in the greenhouse for 106 d in soils amended with various rates of manure or mineral P. The ORG soil had lower concentrations of labile P (resin-P and NaHCO3-P) compared with the CONV and PRA soils, as determined by sequential P fractionation prior to planting. Ryegrass biomass (root + shoot) and shoot P uptake from soils receiving no P were significantly lower for the ORG than all other management systems. Although apparent P use efficiency of the whole plant was increased by low P rate in the ORG management system, the source of applied P, manure > mineral, only influenced Olsen test P.
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