Crop residues and N fertilizer under no-till may increase soil water repellency (SWR) and soil hydrophobicity, but few studies have examined these two treatment factors and their interaction. A laboratory study was conducted using a long-term (since 1999) field experiment on a clay loam soil to determine the effect of three crop residues and two N fertilizer levels on SWR and soil hydrophobicity under no-till within the Dark Brown soil zone of the semi-arid Canadian prairies. The three residue treatments were residues removed from soil (Rx0), residues returned to soil (Rx1), and residues supplemented to soil (Rx2). The two fertilizer N treatments were 0 (N0) and 45 kg N ha-1 (N1). Surface (0–10 cm) soil samples were taken in the spring of 2017 after 17 yr. Laboratory measurements were conducted on air-dried and sieved (<2 mm) soil to determine SWR using the repellency index method (RI), soil organic C, hydrophobic CH and hydrophilic CO functional groups, and soil hydrophobicity (CH/CO ratio). Mean RI values ranged from 2.19 to 2.75, indicating subcritical (RI > 1.95) SWR. Similar (P > 0.05) RI values were found for the three residue and two N fertilizer treatments, but the trend was for greater RI with increased residue addition (by 12%–26%) and N fertilizer (by 8%). Soil hydrophobicity was significantly greater by 47%–82% for straw returned or supplemented than straw removed treatments, and by 33% for fertilized than unfertilized treatments. Overall, greater residues and N fertilizer had no effect on SWR, but significantly increased soil hydrophobicity.
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