Chaowasku, T., A. Damthongdee, H. Jongsook, D.T. Ngo, H.T. Le, D.M. Tran & S. Suddee (2018). Enlarging the monotypic Monocarpieae (Annonaceae, Malmeoideae): recognition of a second genus from Vietnam informed by morphology and molecular phylogenetics. Candollea 73: 261–275. In English, English abstract. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15553/c2018v732a11Recent botanical expeditions in central Vietnam yielded an unknown species of Annonaceae that could not be confidently identified to subfamily, tribe, and genus. Preliminary BLAST® searches based on plastid data have suggested that this taxon is genetically closely-related to the following tribes of subfamily Malmeoideae: Malmeeae, Fenerivieae, Maasieae, Phoenicantheae, Dendrokingstonieae, Monocarpieae, and Miliuseae. Using representatives of Piptostigmateae, another tribe of Malmeoideae, as outgroups and including representatives of all other tribes of Malmeoideae, molecular phylogenetic analyses of seven combined plastid markers (rbcL, matK, ndhF, ycf1 exons; trnL intron; trnL-trnF, psbA-trnH intergenic spacers) inferred the enigmatic Vietnamese taxon as belonging to the monotypic tribe Monocarpieae. Detailed morphological comparisons between this taxon and its sister group, Monocarpia Miq., warranted the recognition of a second genus of Monocarpieae to accommodate our unknown taxon: Leoheo Chaowasku with a single species, Leoheo domatiophorus Chaowasku, D.T. Ngo & H.T. Le. The morphology of the new genus agrees well with the diagnostic traits of Monocarpieae, e.g., a percurrent tertiary venation of the leaves, a highly reduced number of carpels per flower, enlarged and lobed stigmas, multiple ovules/seeds per ovary/monocarp, considerably large monocarps with a hardened pericarp when dry, and spiniform ruminations of the endosperm. However, the new genus does not exhibit two characteristic features of Monocarpia: terminal inflorescences and generally distinct intramarginal leaf veins. In addition, the new genus possesses three autapomorphic characters: hairy domatia on the lower leaf surface, longitudinal ridges on the monocarp surface, and subsessile monocarps with a stout stipe. The tribe Monocarpieae is consequently enlarged to include the genus Leoheo. The enlarged Monocarpieae, along with the recently established monotypic tribe Phoenicantheae and two other related tribes, Dendrokingstonieae and Miliuseae, are discussed.Received: November 4, 2017. Accepted: August 30, 2018. First published online: November 23, 2018.