To examine influences of predation risk on escape in the Jamaican trunk-ground anole, Anolis lineatopus, I simulated an approaching predator. Theory predicts that flight initiation distance and distance fled increase as risk increases. Flight initiation distance (predator-prey distance when escape begins) was not affected by starting distance (predator-prey distance when approach begins) or sex. Flight initiation distance and distance fled were longer when lizards were farther from refuge. Flight initiation distance was longer during fast than slow approaches, but approach speed did not affect distance fled because most lizards stopped fleeing before entering refuge. Flight initiation distance was longer when lizards were approached directly than indirectly and were partially concealed than in the open. Both flight initiation distance and distance fled were longer for the second of two approaches due to predator persistence. Lizards were more likely to flee when a predator standing nearby turned toward than away from them. Where differences occurred, flight initiation distance and distance fled increased as risk increased for all risk factors. Anolis lineatopus adaptively adjusts its escape to numerous risks in accordance with theory. Its method of escape when on ground by running toward and stopping adjacent to or on trees appears to be typical for trunk-ground anoles, and may lessen effects of predator approach speed on distance fled and probability of entering refuge. Differences among anole ecomorphs in microhabitats, morphology affecting escape ability, escape methods and destinations is hypothesized to lead to differences among them in effects of risk factors on escape.
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