Eleven samples of moss, lichen, and leaf litter were collected at four sites on Barbados, an island of the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, in January, 2009 and examined for the presence of water bears (Phylum Tardigrada). Although no tardigrades were found in leaf litter, 84 specimens and 11 eggs were present in moss and lichen samples. Four tardigrade species (Macrobiotus harmsworthi, Macrobiotus hufelandi, Paramacrobiotus richtersi, and Minibiotus intermedius) are considered cosmopolitan, and have been found on other Caribbean islands. The fifth species, Milnesium barbadosense sp. n., is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by having a smooth cuticle, a posterior insertion of the stylet supports on the buccal tube, thick main claw branches with very small accessory points, slender secondary claw branches with short basal spurs, and no eyes. The most likely sources of tardigrades on Barbados are colonists from older islands in the Lesser Antilles, or immigrants brought in by humans on introduced plants.
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