Fishes of the family Muraenidae (moray eels) comprise two subfamilies of highly specialized benthic forms. As first documented and described in two earlier papers, morays have a highly specialized raptorial feeding apparatus in which they move their upper pharyngeal jaws forward into the oral cavity to grasp prey and transport it back into the esophagus. Here I revisit the descriptive aspects of the second paper and compare them to my own investigations of the topographic anatomy of this apparatus. Regrettably, my observations of the relevant anatomical details and terminology differ markedly from those presented in that paper. Accordingly, I describe and illustrate my observations, compare them to previous descriptions, and discuss possible functional implications. In contrast to the earlier paper, I offer detailed argumentation and justification for my terminology and identification of relevant gill-arch muscles in muraenids. Based on my re-interpretation of the topographic anatomy of the pharyngeal musculature, three conspicuously different anatomical mechanisms of pharyngeal jaw protrusion and retraction are identified.
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