A taxonomic revision of Sturisomatichthys is presented. A total of 383 specimens including both type and non-type specimens of all valid species were examined. Sturisomatichthys was found to encompass ten valid species: Sturisomatichthys aureus, S. caquetae, S. citurensis, S. dariensis, S. festivus, S. frenatus, S. kneri, S. leightoni, S. panamensis, and S. tamanae. In addition, three new species are described: Sturisomatichthys reinae, new species, from the Baudó River, in northwestern Colombia, belonging to the Caribbean slope of the continent; Sturisomatichthys guaitipan, new species, from the upper and middle Magdalena River basin, Colombia; and Sturisomatichthys varii, new species, from the San Juan River basin in western Colombia, on the Pacific slope. Sturisomatichthys caquetae, from the Morelia River, upper Amazon, is transferred back from Sturisoma, and S. leightoni was found to be distributed, besides the Magdalena-Cauca basin, in the Orinoco basin; thus, Sturisomatichthys is shown to be distributed in both trans- and cis-Andean drainages. A neotype is designated for S. aureus from the lower Magdalena basin. New records of localities in the northwestern region of South America, as well as the redescription and taxonomic comments on all valid species, are provided. Maps with the species distributions and a key for identification of the species are provided.
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Vol. 107 • No. 4