Fundamental changes in farming systems occurred throughout the medium-rainfall zone of southern Australia during the late 1990s. Pulse and canola crops replaced pastures and long-fallowing, and minimal-tillage practices were increasingly adopted. An experiment was established in 1998 to examine long-term effects of these changes on crop productivity and soil fertility. Nine rotation–tillage treatments based on 3- and 6-year cycles were compared by using wheat (Triticum aestivum) as a bioassay crop over 2001–17. Seasonal conditions during the study ranged from the Millennium Drought to the top rainfall decile.
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Vol. 70 • No. 1