Larvae of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, feed and complete their development within the lumen of wheat and other hollow-stemmed grasses. Stems with large diameters are preferred and are the most suitable hosts. The sex ratios of wasps are male-biased in small stems and female-biased in large stems. Sawfly fitness, as indicated by wasp size, fecundity, and longevity, increases with host stem size.
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