Analyses of pitfall traps in Washington and Oregon apple orchards revealed that highly mobile invertebrates were strongly susceptible to applications of broad-spectrum, neural-active insecticides. When compared with orchard blocks managed without broad-spectrum insecticides, orchard blocks under conventionally managed regimes had significantly lower populations of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), centipedes (Chilopoda), earwigs (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), harvestmen (Opiliones), and spiders (Aranae). The carabid species Pterostichus adstrictus Eschscholtz and P. melanarius Illiger constituted 89% of all ground beetles collected over 2 growing seasons. Three times as many free-hunting spiders were found in the no broad-spectrum blocks than in the conventional blocks. Less mobile invertebrates such as mites, slugs, and snails appeared to be less affected by the different management strategies. Ground beetles, spiders, harvestmen, earwigs, and centipedes are all probable predators of lepidopteran and homopteran pests of apple.
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