The foraging activity of pollinator insects in relation to weather factors (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed) was studied in an apple orchard with special reference to two managed bee species, Osmia cornuta (Latreille) and Apis mellifera L. Over the range of observed weather values, A. mellifera activity was significantly dependent on temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed; O. cornuta activity was dependent on solar radiation and wind speed. These results were confirmed through video recordings at one O. cornuta nesting shelter and one A. mellifera hive. For both species, daily activity started at lower temperatures than it ceased, whereas solar radiation did not differ between these two events. In general, O. cornuta was active from 10 to 12°C and 200 w/m2, and A. mellifera from 12 to 14°C and 300 w/m2. O. cornuta was the only bee species seen visiting apple flowers under strong wind or light rain. Because of its greater tolerance to inclement weather, O. cornuta pollinated apple flowers for longer periods (both daily and seasonally) than other flower visitors.
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