The effect of temperature on various life history parameters of Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan & Legner was determined to develop functions that could be used for improving models of biological control, as well as to compare its response to temperature with other pteromalid species that occur in Alberta. Immature development was influenced by temperature and sex. Male development averaged 90% of the female developmental time. Immature development was >115 d at 15°C, and declined to ≈13 d at 30°C. Relative survival of immatures was lowest at 15 and 33°C, and highest near 25°C. The sex ratio of emerging parasitoids averaged 64% female for wasps reared on pupae of Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) and Musca domestica (L.). Female longevity was highest at 20°C, and decreased with both increasing and decreasing temperatures. Time to 50% progeny production decreased with increasing temperatures. Lifetime progeny production was lowest at 15 and 33°C, and highest at 25°C. The net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase were also lowest at 15 and 33°C, whereas mean generation time declined with increasing temperature. Generation time of M. zaraptor was considerably longer at low temperatures compared with M. raptor and T. sarcophagae. This may explain why the seasonal activity of M. zaraptor in Alberta is restricted to late July and early August, and also suggests that M. zaraptor may not be as effective for early season releases in Alberta compared with other pteromalid species.
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