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1 August 2002 Oviposition and Development of Fannia spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) on Poultry Manure of Low Moisture Levels
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Adults of Fannia canicularis (L.) and F. femoralis (Stein) were given a choice of poultry manure of 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65% moisture for oviposition. Adult F. canicularis laid most eggs on 55 and 65% moisture manure, whereas adults of F. femoralis laid most eggs on 65% moisture manure. Few eggs of either species were laid on manure ≤45% moisture. Larval development trials were conducted at 33, 40, 47, 52, and 56% manure moisture, noting number emerged, time required for emergence, and adult size. Neonate larvae of F. canicularis developed well at moisture levels ≥47%, some developed slowly and into smaller adults at 40%, whereas 33% moisture was lethal. Manure moisture of 40–47% depressed emergence and slowed development of neonate F. femoralis larvae. Early third instars of Fannia spp. were more resistant than neonate larvae to low moisture conditions. Some third-instar F. canicularis could survive and emerge at 33% moisture, whereas some third-instar F. femoralis could emerge at moisture levels of ≥40%. Overall, F. canicularis tended to use drier manure for oviposition and could develop in lower moisture conditions relative to F. femoralis. Implications of these moisture requirements for management are discussed.
Bradley A. Mullens, Coralie E. Szijj and Nancy C. Hinkle "Oviposition and Development of Fannia spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) on Poultry Manure of Low Moisture Levels," Environmental Entomology 31(4), (1 August 2002).
Received: 29 January 2001; Accepted: 1 February 2002; Published: 1 August 2002

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