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1 December 2005 Survey of Muscalure [(Z)-9-tricosene] on House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) from Field Populations in California
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The sex pheromone component muscalure [(Z)-9-tricosene] on the cuticles of female house flies (Musca domestica L.) was quantified using gas chromatography. Laboratory and wild-strain house fly colonies were derived from poultry and dairy farms and a horse-riding stable. Muscalure levels from strain MB females were highest after 13 and 23 generations in culture, but 30–70% of females from early generations (F8–F12) had no detectable levels of muscalure. Flies <2 d old from the MB laboratory colony (F23) had less muscalure than did older flies, and levels tended to increase as flies aged from 3 to 8 d. Of 10 wild house fly populations sampled at 3 d of age (72–96 h old) between F1 and F7 in culture, 1 had no detectable muscalure, and 8 of 10 averaged ≤218 ng of muscalure per female, comprising ≤1.6% of total cuticular hydrocarbons. In 6 of 10 field populations, ≥67% of females had no detectable muscalure. In contrast, two field strains had average levels of 559 and 1,113 ng muscalure/female (comprising 3.2 and 5.0% of total hydrocarbons), which was comparable to long-established laboratory strains such as the UCR strain (751 ng muscalure/female, comprising 3.0% of total hydrocarbons). More than 70% of females from those two field strains had muscalure. Flies from the Cooper laboratory strain also lacked detectable muscalure. Muscalure amounts were highly variable; it was rare or lacking in many field populations and thus does not seem to be essential for house fly reproduction.

Jonathan M. Darbro, Jocelyn G. Millar, J. Steven McElfresh, and Bradley A. Mullens "Survey of Muscalure [(Z)-9-tricosene] on House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) from Field Populations in California," Environmental Entomology 34(6), 1418-1425, (1 December 2005).
Received: 18 May 2005; Accepted: 1 September 2005; Published: 1 December 2005

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