Ichneumonoidea is an important group in terrestrial ecosystems, although its community structure in tropical agricultural environments is unknown. Consequently, a characterization of ichneumonoid communities was done in an agricultural environment consisting of a cultivated area with and without surrounding vegetation in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. The characterization helped to understand how Ichneumonoidea diversity changes in the vegetation structure adjacent a crop. Three sampling sites were established: nine experimental plots in open area with continual agricultural use without surrounding vegetation (NSV), nine experimental plots with surrounding vegetation in a remaining patch (WSV), and nine plots inside of secondary vegetation of a remaining 7-yr-old patch (SV). Ichneumonoidea specimens were collected with Malaise and yellow pan traps. A total of 1,715 specimens were collected, divided into 40 subfamilies, resulting in 138 genera and 480 species. Of these, Braconidae accounted for 1,115 specimens from 21 subfamilies, 84 genera, and 342 species, whereas Ichneumonidae was represented by 600 individuals from 19 subfamilies with 54 genera and 142 species. Braconidae had higher species richness, abundance, and diversity than Ichneumonidae. Both families exhibited higher diversity in the treatment with surrounding vegetation. Koinobiont species were most common in both families. We suggest that vegetation structure and spatial distribution seem to have greater effect on community structure. Our results suggest that Ichneumonoidea could be a better indicator of the degree of disturbance than of environmental preservation.