Field surveys of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, and its natural enemies, as well as natural enemy exclosure experiments, were conducted during 2003 and 2004 in soybean fields near Langfang, China. In 2003, aphid density increased six-fold during 12 d in July from 66 ± 12 per 10 plants to a seasonal peak of 401 ± 79 per 10 plants. Aphid density remained high for another 10 d and declined during late July and early August. In 2004, aphid density increased 29-fold during 13 d in July from 14 ± 2 per 10 plants to a seasonal peak of 375 ± 30 per 10 plants. Unlike 2003, aphid density remained relatively high during late July and August, peaking again at 296 ± 31 per 10 plants on 24 August. In both years, aphid density remained below economic injury level and seemed to be limited by natural enemies. Exclosure of natural enemies led to increases in A. glycines density in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, peak aphid densities in large- and medium-mesh cages were three- and seven-fold higher, respectively, than densities on uncaged plants. In 2004, peak aphid densities in large- and medium-mesh cages were 2-fold and 30-fold higher, respectively, than densities on uncaged plants in one experiment. In another experiment, peak aphid densities in large-, medium-, and small-mesh cages were 8-fold, 28-fold, and 68-fold higher, respectively, than densities on uncaged plants. Both predators and parasitoids were important in limiting aphid density. We compare our results with those from North America and discuss implications for biological control.
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