Spatial and temporal dynamics of bark beetles in single tree trunks of Pinus armandi were studied in Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province, China. Ten species of engraver bark beetles attacked from healthy to withered Chinese white pines, but seven species were commonly detected every year in Qinling forest ecosystem. Dendroctonus armandi and Hylurgops longipilis were common species at the lower of trunks, and Ips acuminatus, Polygraphus sinensis, and Pityogenes japonicus primary distributed in the middle of trunks, whereas population densities of Cryphalus lipingensis and C. chinlingensis centralized at the upper trunks and branches of Chinese white pines. On the time series, D. armandi, as a dominant species in Chinese white pines of Qinling forest ecosystem, mainly attacked healthy and weakened trees and cooperated with blue stain fungus that resulted in the declining abruptly resistance and triggered the secondary bark beetles to attack the infected or withered host trees. Attacking and colonizing phenology of bark beetles in Qinling forest ecosystem are caused by complex interactions among spatial and trophic competition and cooperation and exhibit particular spatial and temporal patterns. Our results support the view that competition and cooperation within bark beetles are a critical factor to influence bark beetles spatial and temporal distribution, and stability of bark beetles’ ecosystem, D. armandi, I. acuminatus, P. japonicus, P. sinensis, C. lipingensis, C. chinlingensis, and H. longipilis in Chinese white pine of Qinling forest ecosystem.