In western North America, infestations of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), are common on orchard, ornamental, and roadside western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sargent. However, these infestations rarely cause T. heterophylla mortality. Host tolerance and presence of endemic predators may be contributing to the relatively low levels of injury to T. heterophylla caused by A. tsugae. Field surveys of the arthropod community associated with A. tsugae infestations on 116 T. heterophylla at 16 sites in Oregon and Washington were conducted every 4–6 wk from January 2005 through November 2006. Fourteen uninfested T. heterophylla were also surveyed across 5 of the 16 sites. Immature A. tsugae predators collected in the field were brought to the laboratory for rearing. Eight species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from pupae of predators of A. tsugae in the laboratory. Two Pachyneuron spp. (Pteromalidae) and a Melanips sp. (Figitidae) were reared from Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) puparia. Syrphoctonus pallipes (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae), Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae), Syrphophagus sp. (Encyrtidae), and Pachyneuron albutius Walker were reared from Syrphidae (Diptera) puparia. A Helorus sp. (Heloridae) was reared from a Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) cocoon. Laboratory rearing did not show any direct association between parasitoids and A. tsugae. In the field survey, a total of 509 adult parasitic Hymenoptera representing 19 families and at least 57 genera were collected from T. heterophylla. Nonparametric analysis of community structure showed Pachyneuron spp. were strongly correlated to abundance of their Leucopis spp. hosts and to A. tsugae population score in the field. The possible impact of parasitism on Leucopis spp., potential A. tsugae biological control candidates for the eastern United States, is discussed.
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