Between 1997 and 2005, a study was made of the Chrysididae, Eumeninae, and Spheciformes wasps in the Arribes del Duero Natural Park (Provinces of Salamanca and Zamora, western Spain), a highly heterogeneous Mediterranean landscape. We collected, respectively, 127, 57, and 230 species of these groups, constituting ≈50% of the species known for the Iberian Peninsula. The inventory was fairly complete according to the final slope of the species accumulation curves. From a biogeographic point of view, the predominant elements of the Arribes del Duero fauna are Mediterranean in the broad sense, together with a high percentage of species of Euro-Atlantic distribution. The proportion of endemic species obtained is similar to those known for the whole of the Iberian Peninsula. The species endemic to the northern subplateau and to the southwestern quadrant predominate. The Arribes del Duero territory is the northern limit of the distribution of some Iberian-Maghrebine species, although it is also the southern limit of species widely distributed throughout central and northern Europe. The Atlantic influence in the territory has facilitated the persistence of some species, with an Atlantic or sub-Atlantic distribution, related in particular to riparian forests. This space constitutes a large eco-corridor that joins the north of the Peninsula to the south, linking communities corresponding to the Eurosiberian and Mediterranean biogeographic regions and to territories encompassed within the Temperate and Mediterranean macrobioclimates. Thus, because of its geographic situation and extensive latitudinal range, together with the fact that it has a good representation of European biodiversity, the Arribes del Duero Park is proposed as a priority area for insect diversity conservation in the Mediterranean region.
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