Solenopsis geminata (F.) was introduced into southern Taiwan decades ago and has continued to threaten the residents. Although the venom compositions of various fire ant species have been studied, the effects of environmental cues on the secretion pattern have received relatively little attention in an area with subtropical climate and high humidity, such as Taiwan. This study characterizes the effects of temperature and season on the venom compositions of S. geminata in Taiwan. Pure venom was sampled by using a microcapillary pipette and immersing the whole ant in hexane and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results showed that the ratio of cis C11 to trans C11 alkaloids in major workers was significantly higher than that in minor workers. No significant differences could be found in either the relative alkaloids content or the ratio of cis C11 to trans C11 alkaloids in venom of minor workers while rearing at four temperature conditions. Nevertheless, the ratio of cis C11 to trans C11 alkaloids in the venom of minor workers was the highest in spring and the lowest in winter. The results also showed that the body length, abdomen length, head length, head width, and venom volume differed significantly between major workers and minor workers of S. geminata. The venom volumes of these two castes were positively correlated with their body sizes.
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