The brown spruce longhorn beetle, Tetropium fuscum (F.), is an invasive wood-boring species in eastern Canada. Gas chromatographic/electroantennographic (GC/EAD) analyses of Norway and red spruce volatiles detected a number of consistent EAD-active responses to compounds that are known to be stress-induced in spruce. The effects of these EAD-active compounds on various aspects of adult behavior were tested. In two-choice olfactometer assays, a monoterpene spruce blend, (R) - (-) -linalool, (3Z,6E) -α-farnesene, (E) -β-farnesene and spruce essential oil were attractive to both sexes. However, when they were combined with the male-produced pheromone (fuscumol), they elicited a sex-specific response: females were significantly attracted to combinations of fuscumol plus either (3Z,6E)-α-farnesene, (E)-β-farnesene and spruce essential oil but males were not. Fuscumol alone was unattractive to either sex in the olfactometer. Males exposed to fuscumol, (3Z,6E)-αfarnesene, or a combination of both, but not (E)-β-farnesene, were more likely to engage in the pheromone calling posture relative to controls. Both the monoterpene spruce blend and spruce essential oil elicited significantly greater trap capture of both sexes of T. fuscum in the presence of fuscumol and ethanol than (3Z,6E)-α-farnesene or (R)-(-)-linalool, which did not elicit trap capture alone or in combination with fuscumol. The data support the hypothesis that stress-induced sesquiterpene components, such as (3Z,6E)-α-farnesene, are important for mediating close-range attraction and behavior in T. fuscum while the monoterpene components are important for long-range processes (trap capture).
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