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1 October 2011 Sampling Efficacy for the Red Imported Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
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Cost-effective detection of invasive ant colonies before establishment in new ranges is imperative for the protection of national borders and reducing their global impact. We examined the sampling efficiency of food-baits and pitfall traps (baited and nonbaited) in detecting isolated red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) nests in multiple environments in Gainesville, FL. Fire ants demonstrated a significantly higher preference for a mixed protein food type (hotdog or ground meat combined with sweet peanut butter) than for the sugar or water baits offered. Foraging distance success was a function of colony size, detection trap used, and surveillance duration. Colony gyne number did not influence detection success. Workers from small nests (0- to 15-cm mound diameter) traveled no >3 m to a food source, whereas large colonies (>30-cm mound diameter) traveled up to 17 m. Baited pitfall traps performed best at detecting incipient ant colonies followed by nonbaited pitfall traps then food baits, whereas food baits performed well when trying to detect large colonies. These results were used to create an interactive model in Microsoft Excel, whereby surveillance managers can alter trap type, density, and duration parameters to estimate the probability of detecting specified or unknown S. invicta colony sizes. This model will support decision makers who need to balance the sampling cost and risk of failure to detect fire ant colonies.
© 2011 Entomological Society of America
Lloyd D. Stringer, David Maxwell Suckling, David Baird, Robert K. Vander Meer, Sheree J. Christian and Philip J. Lester "Sampling Efficacy for the Red Imported Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)," Environmental Entomology 40(5), (1 October 2011).
Received: 5 January 2011; Accepted: 8 July 2011; Published: 1 October 2011

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