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1 December 2011 Development and Survival of Orius insidiosus (Say) Nymphs on Encapsulated Bee Pollen-Based Diet in a Tier-I Toxicity Assay
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The insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is an important surrogate species for assessing potential effects of plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs) on nontarget heterotrophic predators. In this study, a continuous dietary exposure system was optimized by assessing the effect of diet composition and age on the survival and development of nymphs of O. insidiosus. Greater than 85% control survival and an acceptable rate of development from nymph hatching to adult was achieved using 5-d-old nymphs at test initiation and a bee pollen-based diet supplemented with 25% Ephestia eggs. There was an unacceptable level of mortality (>40%) and/or a significantly prolonged development time when nymphs were <5 d old at test initiation. When 5-d-old nymphs were fed a bee pollen diet containing 25% Ephestia eggs and 100 μg/g potassium arsenate, time-dependent mortality was observed with a median lethal time (LT50) of 4.4 d and 100% mortality was observed after 10 d of feeding, indicating the effectiveness of the test system to detect adverse effects by dietary exposure. It is recommended that well-defined 5-d-old nymphs and an encapsulated bee pollen-based diet containing 25% ground Ephestia eggs be used in a Tier-I dietary feeding exposure assay for detecting potential effects of PIPs on O. insidiosus nymphs.

© 2011 Entomological Society of America
Jianguo Tan, Mark S. Paradise, Steven L. Levine, Pamela M. Bachman, Joshua P. Uffman, Changjian Jiang, and David B. Carson "Development and Survival of Orius insidiosus (Say) Nymphs on Encapsulated Bee Pollen-Based Diet in a Tier-I Toxicity Assay," Environmental Entomology 40(6), (1 December 2011).
Received: 1 March 2011; Accepted: 1 August 2011; Published: 1 December 2011

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