The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a pest of coffee and many endemic Hawaiian plants. Traps baited with chemical attractants commonly are used to capture ambrosia beetles for purposes of monitoring, studying population dynamics, predicting outbreaks, and mass trapping to reduce damage. The objectives of this research were to optimize trapping systems for X. compactus and other ambrosia beetles such as Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) by comparing efficacy of several attractants, repellents, and trap types. The ability of certain chemicals to act as beetle repellents and thus interfere with trap catch was tested for purposes of protecting host plants from attack. Potential attractants and application methods tested were as follows: ethyl alcohol pouch delivery system, ethyl alcohol vial delivery system, α-pinene in Eppendorf tubes, eugenol bubblecaps, ginger oil bubblecaps, manuka oil bubblecaps, phoebe oil bubblecaps, and an unbaited control. Potential repellents tested were limonene and verbenone. Ethyl alcohol vials were as attractive as ethyl alcohol sleeves, and were more effective than traps baited with eugenol and α-pinene. Japanese beetle traps were more effective for black twig borer trapping than Lindgren funnel traps, and were easier to deploy. Verbenone and limonene significantly reduced trap catch of Xylosandrus compactus and X. crassiusculus, suggesting that they may be effective for reducing attraction to host plants. These results show the importance of developing a combination of several monitoring techniques to enhance management procedures for the black twig borer.
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