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1 June 2013 Blend Chemistry and Field Attraction of Commercial Sex Pheromone Lures to Grape Berry Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and a Nontarget Tortricid in Vineyards
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Abstract
Anecdotal reports by scientists and growers suggested commercial sex pheromone lures were ineffective with monitoring field populations of grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), in vineyards. This study addressed the need to evaluate commercial sex pheromone lures for chemical purity and efficacy of attracting grape berry moth and a nontarget tortricid, the sumac moth, Episumus argutanus (Clemens). The percentage of chemical components from a set of eight lures from each manufacturer was found using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirmed by chemical standards. No lures adhered to the 9:1 blend of (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate (Z9–12:Ac) to (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11–14:Ac), though Suterra (9.1:1), ISCA (5.7:1), and Trécé (5.4:1) lures were closest. The Trécé lures contained ≈98 µg Z9–12:Ac, which is 3–51 times more than the other lures. The Suterra and ISCA lures were loaded with ≈29 and 33 µg Z9–12:Ac, and the Alpha Scents lures only contained ≈2 µg Z9–12: Ac. An antagonistic impurity, (E)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9–12:Ac), was found in all manufacturer lures at concentrations from 3.2 to 4.8%. Field attraction studies were done in summer 2010, and again in 2011, to evaluate commercial lures for their potential to attract P. viteana and E. argutanus in the presence of lures from other manufacturers. Separate experiments were established in two vineyards in Augusta County, VA, one with open and the other with wooded surroundings. In field experiments, Suterra lures detected P. viteana most often, Trécé lures detected more E. argutanus, and ISCA lures detected P. viteana in the open vineyard the least, while Alpha Scents lures were least attractive to E. argutanus in both environments. Fewer P. viteana were captured in the wooded versus open vineyard, which may limit the potential for sex pheromone monitoríng of P. viteana in wooded vineyards.
© 2013 Entomological Society of America
T. A. Jordan, A. Zhang and D. G. Pfeiffer "Blend Chemistry and Field Attraction of Commercial Sex Pheromone Lures to Grape Berry Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and a Nontarget Tortricid in Vineyards," Environmental Entomology 42(3), (1 June 2013). https://doi.org/10.1603/EN13033
Received: 31 January 2013; Accepted: 1 April 2013; Published: 1 June 2013
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