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1 April 2015 Biology and Host Range of Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a Candidate Agent for Biological Control of Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata) in California and Oregon
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Abstract

Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata Lemaire) is an ornamental vine native to South Africa that has escaped into natural areas in coastal California and Oregon, displacing native vegetation. Surveys in South Africa led to the discovery of the leaf- and stem-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike and Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae: Acrolepiinae) as one of several common and damaging native herbivores on Cape-ivy. In greenhouse studies, adult female life span averaged 16 d (46 d maximum). Most (72%) mated females began laying eggs within 72 h of emergence. Females had an average lifetime fecundity of 52 eggs, with >70% laid on leaf laminae, and 89% of eggs were laid by the 15th day postemergence. Lifetime fertility (adult production) averaged three to four offspring per female. At 25°C, egg hatch required 10 d, pupal formation 26 d, and adult emergence 41 d, while under variable greenhouse and laboratory conditions development to adult required 54–60 d. In four-way choice tests, involving 100 plant species other than Cape-ivy, including 11 genera and 37 species in the Asteraceae, subtribe Senecioninae from both native and invaded ranges, D. delaireae inflicted damage and produced pupae only on Cape-ivy. Leaf mining damage occurred on 30% of leaves of native Senecio hydrophilus in no-choice tests and on 2% of leaves in dual-choice tests, but no pupation occurred. If approved for field release in the continental United States, the moth D. delaireae is expected to produce multiple generations per year on Cape-ivy, and to pose little risk of damage to native plants.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Christopher N. Mehelis, Joe K. Balciunas, Angelica M. Reddy, Liame Van Der Westhuizen, Stefan Neser, and Patrick J. Moran "Biology and Host Range of Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a Candidate Agent for Biological Control of Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata) in California and Oregon," Environmental Entomology 44(2), 260-276, (1 April 2015). https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvu030
Received: 21 July 2014; Accepted: 4 December 2014; Published: 1 April 2015
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