The persistence of Müllerian mimicry and geographically distinct wing patterns, as observed in many Heliconius species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), is difficult to explain from a predator's perspective: predator selection against locally rare patterns must persist despite avoidance learning. Maintaining spatial color-pattern polymorphism requires local pattern avoidance, fine-scale discrimination among similar wing patterns, and repeated attacks on novel color patterns. I tested for these behaviors by presenting 80 adult rufous-tailed jacamars (Galbula ruficauda) with three morphs of Heliconius butterflies, and then presenting the same suite of butterflies to 46 of these jacamars between four and 429 days later. These trials offer the first direct evidence of the selective predator behavior required to maintain aposematic polymorphism: jacamars avoid local aposematic morphs while repeatedly attacking similar but novel morphs over time.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 58 • No. 12