Most work on adaptive speciation to date has focused on the role of low hybrid fitness as the force driving reinforcement (the evolution of premating isolation after secondary contact that reduces the likelihood of matings between populations). However, recent theoretical work has shown that postmating, prezygotic incompatibilities may also be important in driving premating isolation. We quantified premating, postmating-prezygotic, and early postzygotic fitness effects in crosses among three populations: Drosophila persimilis, D. pseudoobscura USA (sympatric to D. persimilis), and D. pseudoobscura Bogotá (allopatric to D. persimilis). Interspecific matings were more likely to fail when they involved the sympatric populations than when they involved the allopatric populations, consistent with reinforcement. We also found that failure rate in sympatric mating trials depended on whether D. persimilis females were paired with D. pseudoobscura males or the reverse. This asymmetry most likely indicates differences in discrimination against heterospecific males by females. By measuring egg laying rate, fertilization success and hatching success, we also compared components of postmating-prezygotic and early postzygotic isolation. Postmating-prezygotic fitness costs were small and not distinguishable between hetero- and conspecific crosses. Early postzygotic fitness effects due to hatching success differences were also small in between-population crosses. There was, however, a postzygotic fitness effect that may have resulted from an X-linked allele found in one of the two strains of D. pseudoobscura USA. We conclude that the postmating-prezygotic fitness costs we measured probably did not drive premating isolation in these species. Premating isolation is most likely driven in sympatric populations by previously known hybrid male sterility.
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Vol. 59 • No. 5