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1 September 2007 THE ROLE OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN THE EXPRESSION AND EVOLUTION OF MIXED MATING IN HERMAPHRODITIC PLANTS AND ANIMALS
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Abstract

Although a large portion of plant and animal species exhibit intermediate levels of outcrossing, the factors that maintain this wealth of variation are not well understood. Natural enemies are one relatively understudied ecological factor that may influence the evolutionary stability of mixed mating. In this paper, we aim for a conceptual unification of the role of enemies in mating system expression and evolution in both hermaphroditic animals and plants. We review current theory and detail the potential effects of enemies on fundamental mating system parameters. In doing so, we identify situations in which consideration of enemies alters expectations about the stability of mixed mating. Generally, we find that inclusion of the enemy dimension may broaden conditions in which mixed mating systems are evolutionarily stable. Finally, we highlight avenues ripe for future theoretical and empirical work that will advance our understanding of enemies in the expression and evolution of mixed mating in their hosts/victims, including examination of feedback cycles between victims and enemies and quantification of mating system-related parameters in victim populations in the presence and absence of enemies.

Janette A. Steets, Diana E. Wolf, Josh R. Auld, and Tia-Lynn Ashman "THE ROLE OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN THE EXPRESSION AND EVOLUTION OF MIXED MATING IN HERMAPHRODITIC PLANTS AND ANIMALS," Evolution 61(9), (1 September 2007). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00184.x
Received: 20 December 2006; Accepted: 23 May 2007; Published: 1 September 2007
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