The Mahenge Mountains are located in the Eastern Arc Mountains, part of a global biodiversity hotspot. Few amphibian and reptile surveys have been conducted in this area, with only one study of the submontane forest zone. This previous study revealed a characteristic endemic Eastern Arc amphibian and reptile forest fauna. New studies outlined here extend the sampling time considerably and the geographical coverage (including Mselezi Forest Reserve). These studies reveal a remarkable diversity of amphibians and reptiles increasing known faunal diversity considerably, including several putative new species that await further taxonomic verification. Biogeographical analyses using Bray-Curtis indices show Mahenge clusters with the geographically close Udzungwa Mountains and Southern Highlands (non–Eastern Arc highland fragment including Mt. Rungwe). This clustering of areas suggests an interesting biogeographical history and deserves special attention in the future. In light of the remarkable amphibian and reptile diversity, conservation of Mahenge habitats, in particular Sali Forest Reserve, is desperately required.
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