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1 September 2016 The Species of Genus Ablerus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Azotidae) from China, with Description of a New Species
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Abstract

The Chinese species of the genus Ablerus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Azotidae) are recorded, including 10 described species, Ablerus atomon (Walker), A. calvus (Huang), A. chionaspidis (Howard), A. connectens Silvestri , A. floccosus (Huang), A. macrochaeta Silvestri, A. perspeciosus Girault, A. pexus (Huang), A. promacchiae Viggiani & Ren, A. williamsi (Annecke & Insley), and 1 new species, Ablerus fasciarius Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. A key to the females of Chinese Ablerus species is provided.

Ablerus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae) was established by Howard for the species described originally as Centrodora clisiocampae Ashmead, from District of Columbia, USA (Howard 1894). The genus was treated separately from Azotus Howard for many years, although Girault (1913) synonymized Azotus with Ablerus. Hayat (1983), however, noted that although these genera are very similar, they were distinguished by the following characters: dark setae arranged in groups on the disc of the forewing and a swollen stigmal vein in Azotus; and the sparse discal setae not arranged in groups and thin stigmal vein in Ablerus. Shafee & Rizvi (1984) resynonymized Azotus with Ablerus, and Hayat (1994) followed Girault (1913) and transferred all species of Azotus to Ablerus, except those already transferred to Ablerus by other authors, and placed Myocnemella Girault, 1913 in synonymy with Ablerus. Currently, Ablerus is regarded as the sole genus within the family Azotidae (Heraty et al. 2013).

Ablerus includes 94 species worldwide (Noyes 2015), of which 10 are known from China. Compere (1926) first recorded Ablerus perspeciosus Girault (as Azotus silvestrii Compere) from Shanghai, followed by descriptions of new species and records of other species described by Silvestri (1927), Liao et al. (1987), Viggiani & Ren (1993), Huang (1994), Xu & Huang (2004), and Li et al. (2012). Huang (1994) recorded 6 species (as Azotus), including 3 new species, and provided a key.

In this paper, the 10 species of Ablerus from China are recorded, and 1 new species, Ablerus fasciarius Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., is described. A key to Chinese Ablerus species is provided.

Materials and Methods

Specimens of Ablerus were preserved in 75% ethanol after emergence. The body color was described and photographed from ethanolpreserved specimens before clearing and slide-mounting. Specimens were slide-mounted for species identification following the method outlined by Noyes (1982). The specimens in ethanol were photographed with a MicroPublisher 5.0 RTV camera attached to a Zeiss Stemi 2000-C stereo zoom trinocular microscope with Auto-Montage software and Sony DSC-T900 camera. Slide-mounted specimens were photographed using a Nikon DS-Ri2 camera with NIS-Elements D software attached to a Nikon Ni microscope equipped with differential interference contrast. Body length was measured from ethanol-preserved specimens before they were slide-mounted, and all other measurements were taken from slide-mounted specimens. Type material and other specimens examined in this study were deposited in the College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China (FAFU).

Morphological terminology follows Hayat (1998), and the following abbreviations are used: F1, F2, etc. = antennal funicle segments 1, 2, etc.; T1, T2, etc. = gastral tergites 1, 2, etc.

Abbreviati ons of type depositories

DEZP

Deptartimento di Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria, Università di Napoli, Portici, Italy

FAFU

College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China

GEIG

Guangzhou Entomological Institute, Guangzhou, China

IARI

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Delhi, India

IEUN

Istituto de Entomologia Agraria, Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Portici, Italy

NHM

Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom PPRI Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa

USNM

U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, District of Columbia

ZDAMU

Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, India

Results

Genus Ablerus Howard, 1894

  • Ablerus Howard, 1894: 7. Type species Centrodora clisiocampae Ashmead, by monotypy.

    Azotus Howard, 1898: 138. Type species Azotus marchali Howard, by monotypy. Synonymy by Girault, 1913: 189.

    Myocnemella Girault, 1913: 195. Type species Myocnemella bifasciata Girault, by original designation. Synonymy by Hayat, 1994: 83.

    Dimacrocerus Brethes, 1914: 4. Type species Dimacrocerus platensis Brethes, by original designation. Synonymy by Howard in Girault, 1917: 8.

  • DIAGNOSIS

    Female. Body either flattened and elongate, or convex and shorter, usually dark. Head dark or white to yellow with darker bands; mandible with 2 or 3 teeth and a truncation; maxillary palp 2-segmented, labial palp 1-segmented. Antennal segments usually with contrasting white and dark segments, antennal formula 1,1,4,1, with 1 or 2 anelli; F3 usually shorter than both F2 and F4. Pronotum entire and usually long; mid-lobe of mesoscutum with 2–6 setae, each side-lobe of mesoscutum with 2 setae, each axilla with 1 seta, mesoscutellum broader than long and shorter than mid-lobe of mesoscutum, with 2–4 setae; propodeum distinctly longer than metanotum, at least 0.5 times of mesoscutellum; propodeal spiracles with anterior grooves; mesopostphragma large and long. Forewing either uniformly infuscate behind venation or with infuscated bands of various shapes and bearing darker setae; stigmal vein either with a thin or swollen stigma; postmarginal vein absent; submarginal vein with 1 seta; marginal vein with 3–4 setae; usually 1 seta present on stigmal vein and 1 at junction of parastigma and submarginal vein; disc sparsely or densely setose, or setae arranged in groups and/or tufts. Tarsal formula 5-5-5. Gaster generally longer than head plus thorax; hypopygium usually prominent, extending nearly to level of cereal plates; ovipositor at least slightly exserted (Hayat 1998).

    Male. Similar to female. Antennal segments, except F3, elongate with more longitudinal sensilla, and more or less uniformly colored (Hayat 1998).

  • DISTRIBUTION

    Cosmopolitan.

  • HOSTS

    Hyperparasitoids of other hymenopteran primary parasitoid species, including other chalcidoids. Coccoid hosts recorded in the literature are secondary hosts (Hayat 1998). Some species are confirmed as oophagous (Polaszek 1991).

  • Key to Species (Females) of Ablerus from China

    1.— Mid-lobe of mesoscutum with 1 pair of setae 2

    1′.— Mid-lobe of mesoscutum with 2 pairs of setae or more 7

    2.— Forewing with a row of strong setae below marginal vein A. macrochaeta Silvestri

    2′.— Forewing without a row of strong setae below marginal vein 3

    3.— Antenna with scape expanded, not more than 3.0 times as long as width 4

    3′.— Antenna with scape cylindrical, more than 3.0 times as long as width 5

    4.— O nly 5 or 6 setae below apex of marginal vein, basal half of forewing asetose A. williamsi (Annecke & Insley)

    4′.— A cluster of more than 10 setae below apex of marginal vein, a few setae below marginal vein A. chionaspidis (Howard)

    5.— Flagellum uniformly colored pale brown to pale dark, without contrasting pale and dark segments A. promacchiae Viggiani & Ren

    5′.— Flagellum with contrasting pale (white to yellow) and dark segments 6

    6.— Scape completely dark brown, mostly infuscate below marginal vein and stigmal vein A. atomon (Walker)

    6′.— Scape mostly white, an infuscated band below apical third of marginal vein and stigmal vein A. fasciarius sp. nov.

    7.— Forewing with a row of strong setae below marginal vein A.connectens Silvestri

    7′.— Forewing without a row of strong setae below marginal vein 8

    8.— Forewing with speculum extending from stigmal vein distally to apex of wings A. calvus (Huang)

    8′.— Forewing without speculum extending from stigmal vein distally to apex of wings 9

    9.— Forewing with 2 complete and 1 short infuscated bands A. perspeciosus Girault

    9′.— Forewing with 1 infuscated band, or band not distinct 10

    10.— Forewing with infuscated surface extending from basal cell to apex of stigmal vein A. floccosus (Huang)

    10′.— Forewing with numerous, dense, dark and coarse setae extending from basal cell to apex of stigmal vein A. pexus (Huang)

    1. Ablerus atomon (Walker, 1847) (Figs. 1–4)

  • Encyrtus atomon Walker, 1847: 229. Type status unknown. Austria.

    Azotus marchali Howard, 1898: 139. Holotype ♂. France: Paris (USNM).

    Azotus pinifoliae Mercet, 1912: 141. Syntypes 1 ♀, 1 ♂. Spain: Madrid. Synonymy by Ferrière, 1965: 105.

    Azotus mokrzeckii Nowicky, 1926: 108. Holotype ♀. Poland: Bobrowa. Synonymy by Ferrière, 1965: 105.

    Azotus atomon (Walker, 1847): Ferrière, 1965: 105.

    Ablerus atomon (Walker, 1847): Hayat, 1994: 84.

  • MATERIAL

    China. Xinjiang: 1 ♀, Yining, 23-VII-2010, Hong-Ying Hu, by sweeping (FAFU); 1 ♀, Hutubi, 23-VII-2005, Hong-Ying Hu, by sweeping (FAFU); 1 ♀, Zeketai, 2-VIII-2006, Hong-Ying Hu, by sweeping (FAFU).

  • HOSTS

    The following hosts are recorded: Diaspididae: Diaspidiotus gigas (Thiem & Gerneck), (Li et al. 2011); Chionaspis stantophris, Ch. pinifoliae (Fitch), Diaspidiotus caucasicus (Borchsenius), D. hungaricus Kosztarab, D. ostreaeformis (Curtis), D. perniciosus (Comstock), D. prunorum (Laing), D. pyri (Lichtenstein), D. uvae (Comstock), Epidiaspis leperii (Signoret), Lepidosaphes conchiformis Gmelin, L. ulmi (L.), Leucaspis loewi Colvée, L. pini (Hartig), L. pusilla Löw, L. signoreti Targioni-Tozzetti, Nuculaspis abietis (Schrank), Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti), Quadraspidiotus zonatus (Frauenfeld). Aphelinidae: Encarsia leucaspidis (Mercet), (Walker 1847; Nikol'skaja & Yasnosh 1966; Annecke & Insley 1970; Hayat 1979; Darling & Johnson 1984; Hayat 1994; Yasnosh 1995 ; Noyes 2015)

  • DISTRIBUTION

    China (Xijiang); Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Turkey, Russia, Austria, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, America, Argentina, Egypt, Australia.

  • REMARKS

    Ablerus atomon was first recorded from China by Li et al. (2011), reared from Diaspidiotus gigas (Thiem & Gerneck) in Xinjiang. However, A. atomon was considered as a hyperparasitoid of scale insects (Nikol'skaja & Yasnosh 1966), and the above scale insect hosts are probably the secondary hosts for A. atomon.

  • Figs. 1–4.

    Ablerus atomon (female). 1. Antenna; 2. forewing; 3. mesosoma; 4. ovipositor.

    f01_395.jpg

    2. Ablerus calvus (Huang, 1994)

  • Azotus calvus Huang, 1994: 7, 129. Holotype ♀. Paratypes 9 ♀ ♀. China: Fujian (FAFU).

    Ablerus calvus (Huang, 1994): Xu & Huang, 2004: 325.

  • MATERIAL

    China. Fujian: Holotype ♀, Fuzhou, Forest Park, 12-XI-1989, Jian-Qing Huang, by yellow pan trap (FAFU); Paratypes, 9 ♀ ♀, same data as holotype, except 23-V, 13-VI, 2-XII-1989 (FAFU); 1 ♀, Fuzhou, Forest Park, 8-VII-1989, Zhi-Shan Wu, by sweeping (FAFU).

  • MALE

    Unknown.

  • HOST

    Unknown.

  • DISTRIBUTION

    China (Fujian).

  • REMARKS

    Ablerus calvus resembles Ablerus macchiae (Annecke & Insley, 1970) but is distinguished from the latter by the following: antenna with F1 relatively short, clava about as long as or slightly longer than F1–F3 combined; forewings with speculum extending from stigmal vein distally to apex of wings; legs mostly dark brown.

  • 3. Ablerus chionaspidis (Howard, 1914) (Figs. 5–8)

  • Azotus chionaspidis Howard, 1914: 85. Holotype ♀. Japan: Tokyo (USNM).

    Azotus qadrii Agarwal, 1964: 328. Holotype ♀. Paratype 1 ♂. India: Aligarh (ZDAMU). Synonymy by Hayat, 1998: 130.

    Azotus greatheadi Annecke & Insley, 1970: 234. Holotype ♀. Paratypes 29 ♀♀, 18 ♂♂. Uganda: Lugazi (PPRI). Paratypes in BMNH and USNM. Synonymy by Hayat, 1998: 130.

    Ablerus chionaspidis (Howard, 1914): Hayat, 1994: 84.

  • MATERIAL

    China. Fujian: 1 ♀, Shaxian, 1982, Nai-Quan Lin, by sweeping (FAFU); 2 ♀ ♀, Fuzhou, Jinshan, 22-VIII-1985, Nai-Quan Lin, by sweeping (FAFU); 1 ♀, Longyan, 14-VII-1986, Gao-Sheng Liu, by sweeping (FAFU); 1 ♀, Zhangping, 17-VII-1986, Gao-Sheng Liu, by sweeping (FAFU); 1 ♀, 1 ♀, Fuzhou, Jinshan, 1987, Nai-Quan Lin, by yellow pan trap; 1 ♀, Fuzhou, Forest Park, 25-VII-1989, Zhi-Shan Wu, by sweeping (FAFU).

  • HOSTS

    The following hosts have been recorded: Diaspididae: Chionaspis difficilis, (Howard 1914; Mercet 1922); Aulacaspis pentagona, (Mercet 1922); Aonidiella orientalis on Eugenia jambolana, Duplachionaspis sp. on Dichantium annulatum, ? Melanaspis glomeratus on sugar cane, (Hayat 1998).

  • DISTRIBUTION

    China (Fujian), Uganda, Japan, India.

  • 4. Ablerus connectens Silvestri, 1927

  • Ablerus connectens Silvestri, 1927: 53. Holotype ♀. Sri Lanka: Colombo (DEZP).

  • MATERIAL

    No specimens examined, and recorded from China by Viggiani & Ren (1993).

  • HOSTS

    The following hosts have been recorded: Aleyrodidae: Aleurocanthus woglumi (Ashby), (Silvestri 1927); Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance), (Viggiani & Ren 1993).

  • DISTRIBUTION

    China (Guangdong, Guangxi), Sri Lanka.

  • REMARKS

    Ablerus connectens was originally described by Silvestri (1927) from Sri Lanka, based on the female only, and was recorded from China by Viggiani & Ren (1993), reared from Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) in Guangdong and Guangxi. Viggiani & Ren (1993) also first recorded the male of A. connectens and pointed out it is very similar to the female according to the collected specimens, and depicted the male antenna and genitalia.

  • Figs. 5–8.

    Ablerus chionaspidis (female). 5. Antenna; 6. forewing; 7. mesosoma; 8. ovipositor.

    f05_395.jpg

    5. Ablerus fasciarius Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. (Figs. 917)

  • DESCRIPTION

    Holotype female. Body length: 0.75 mm (excluding exserted part of ovipositor).

  • Color. Head with frontovertex silvery white, eyes red and ocelli red brown; occiput mostly, except for 2 small oval areas above, dark brown; a narrow dark brown band across face above toruli and extending on malar space below eyes, and merging with the dark brown occiput; areas above this band along eyes nearly white, face and malar space below this band brown; mouth space brown yellow, mandible apically dark brown. Mesosoma and metasoma dark brown to dark, apex of ovipositor white. Antenna with most of radicle, ventral margin and apicad of scape, basad of pedicel, F1, F3 and most of clava dark brown to dark; rest of scape and pedicel, F2 and F4 white; apex of clava brown yellow. Forewing hyaline and about apical fourth of wings slightly infuscate, with an infuscated crossband below apical third of marginal vein and stigmal vein, and a cluster of dark bristles below the apex of marginal vein. Legs white to brown yellow, except basal half of hind coxae dark brown, femora apically and tibiae basally pale brown to dark brown, the 5th tarsi pale brown.

  • Head. Eyes bare. Mandible with 3 teeth and a truncation. Antenna with scape 4.5 times as long as wide; pedicel 1.7 times as long as wide, slightly shorter than F1; F2 and F4 equal in length, 3 times and 2.1 times as long as wide, respectively; F3 shortest, 1.25 times as long as wide, 0.48 times as long as F2 and F4 respectively; F1–F4 each with 2–4 multiporous plate sensilla; clava 4.18 times as long as wide, with 6 or 7 multiporous plate sensilla in 2 rows.

  • Mesosoma.Vertex reticulate. Notum of mesosoma with distinct reticulate cells and irregular sculpture in these cells; mid-lobe of mesoscutum with transverse reticulate cells anteriorly and longitudinal or oblique reticulated cells posteriorly, with 1 pair of setae; each side-lobe of mesoscutum with 2 setae; each axilla with 1 seta, distance between axillae about 2.67 times as long as axilla; scutellum transverse, 0.69 times as long as mid-lobe of mesoscutum, with oblique or longitudinal reticulations medially and oblique stripes laterally, bearing 2 pairs of setae, placoid sensilla distantly placed, slightly closer to hind pair than to fore pair of setae; metanotum narrow, with sculptures; propodeum long, 0.88 times as long as scutellum and 4.2 times as long as metanotum, with oblique or longitudinal reticulations medially and oblique stripes laterally; mesopostphragma, measured from apex of scutellum, 3.04 times as long as scutellum. Forewing narrow, 3.13 times as long as maximum width of wing disc; marginal fringe 0.46 times as long as maximum width of disc; disc with dense setae except basal cell and asetose area below a cluster of dark bristles on the infuscated crossband extending to around stigmal vein, ciliation on disc inside the infuscated crossband unusual, consisting of dense, fine setae with a rather large base; 1 seta on submarginal vein and 1 seta premarginal vein, 1 seta below the end of submarginal vein, 3 setae on anterior margin of marginal vein; stigmal vein with a slender neck and expanded apex, postmarginal vein absent.

  • Metasoma. The apex of metasoma projecting; ovipositor long, basally located at the base of T1, projecting beyond the apex of metasoma, 2.61 times as long as mid-tibia, 3rd valvula 0.94 times as long as mid-tibia.

  • MALE

    Unkown.

  • TYPE MATERIAL

    Holotype ♀, China, Fujian, Fuzhou, Jinshan, 26-IX-2013, Zhu-Hong Wang, ex. unidentified diaspidid scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on bamboo (FAFU). Paratypes 2 ♀♀, same data as holotype (FAFU).

  • HOST

    Unidentified Diaspididae scale on bamboo.

  • DISTRIBUTION

    China (Fujian).

  • REMARKS

    Ablerus fasciarius sp. nov. resembles Ablerus similis (De Santis, 1948) with regard to the forewing having an infuscated crossband, but is distinguished from the latter by the following characters: an infuscated crossband below apical third of marginal vein and stigmal vein (in A. similis: below marginal vein), and a cluster of dark bristles below the apex of marginal vein (in A. similis: without a cluster of dark bristles); the asetose area below a cluster of dark bristles on the infuscated crossband, ciliation on disc inside the infuscated crossband unusual, consisting of dense, fine setae with a rather large base (in A. similis: the setae arranged on most of the infuscated crossband, the disc inside the infuscated crossband asetose).

    Ablerus fasciarius sp. nov. also resembles Ablerus macchiae (Annecke & Insley, 1970) and Ablerus separaspidis (Annecke & Insley, 1970) with regard to the forewing having an infuscated crossband below marginal vein, but is distinguished from them by the different form of the infuscated crossband and ciliation on disc of forewing.

  • ETYMOLOGY

    The species name is derived from the Latin word fasciarius = banded, referring to the forewing with an infuscated crossband.

  • Figs. 9–13.

    Ablerus fasciarius sp. nov. (female). 9. Body, dorsal view; 10. body, ventral view; 11. foreleg; 12. mid-leg; 13. hind leg.

    f09_395.jpg

    Figs. 14–17.

    Ablerus fasciarius sp. nov. (female). 14. Antenna; 15. forewing; 16. mesosoma; 17. ovipositor.

    f14_395.jpg

    6. Ablerus floccosus (Huang, 1994)

  • Azotus floccosus Huang, 1994: 8, 136. Holotype ♀. Paratypes 2 ♀ ♀, 2 ♀ ♀, China: Fujian (FAFU).

    Ablerus floccosus (Huang, 1994): Xu & Huang, 2004: 328.

  • MATERIAL

    China. Fujian: Holotype ♀, Fuzhou, Forest Park, 17-VI-1989, Zhi-Shan Wu, by sweeping (FAFU); Paratypes 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂, Sanming, 8-VII-1987, Chang-Ming Liu, by yellow sticky trap (FAFU).

  • HOST

    Unknown.

  • DISTRIBUTION

    China (Fujian).

  • REMARKS

    Ablerus floccosus resembles Ablerus chionaspidis (Howard, 1914), but is distinguished from the latter by the following characters: antenna with scape and pedicel mostly whitish; forewings without pale area below the marginal vein, but with numerous, dense, black and coarse setae, and a group of denser and coarser setae below the distal portion of marginal vein.

  • 7. Ablerus macrochaeta Silvestri, 1927

  • Ablerus macrochaeta Silvestri, 1927: 48. Type status unknown, ♀, ♂. Indocina [Vietnam]: Van Phu (Tonkino).

  • MATERIAL

    Bangladesh. 1♀, Chittagong I-1991, ex Saisettia sp. (NHM). No Chinese specimens examined. Recorded from Guangdong [Canton], China by Silvestri (1927: 51).

  • HOST

    The following host has been recorded: Aleyrodidae: Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance), (Silvestri 1927). Saisettia sp. (Coccidae) recorded here for the first time.

  • DISTRIBUTION

    China (Guangdong), Bangladesh, Vietnam (Van Phu).

  • 8. Ablerus perspeciosus Girault, 1916 (Figs. 18–21)

  • Ablerus perspeciosus Girault, 1916b: 292. ♀. Japan: Nishigahara (Lectotype♀, USNM).

    Azotus silvestrii Compere, 1926: 9. Holotype ♀. Paratype 1 ♀. China: Shanghai (USNM). Synonymy by Gahan, 1942: 47.

    Azotus kashmirensis Narayanan, 1961: 22. Holotype ♀. Paratype 1 ♂. India: Kashmir (IARI). Synonymy by Hayat, 1998: 123.

    Azotus bimaculatus Khan & Shafee, 1976: 172. Holotype ♀. India: Aligarh (ZDAMU). Synonymy by Hayat, 1998: 123.

  • MATERIAL

    China. Fujian: 2 ♀ ♀, Sanming, 8-VII-1987, Chang-Ming Liu, by yellow sticky trap (FAFU); 1 ♀, Fuzhou, Jinshan, 1987, Nai-Quan Lin, by yellow pan trap (FAFU); 1 ♀, Shanghang, Qiushan, 21-VII-1988, Nai-Quan Lin, by sweeping (FAFU); 1 ♀, Fu'an, Xibing, 27-IX-1988, Chang-Fu Lin, by sweeping (FAFU); 1 ♀, Jianyang, 29-IX-1991, Mei-Xing Lin, ex. Cornuaspis gloverii (Parkard) on Citrus.

  • HOSTS

    Cornuaspis gloverii (Parkard) on Citrus. The following additional hosts have been recorded: Diaspididae: ? Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) on Aucuba japonica, (Compere 1926); Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Tarigoni-Tozzettii), (Girault 1916a; Gahan 1942; Tachikawa 1958; Ferrière 1965; Darling & Johnson 1984; Liao et al. 1987); Aulacaspis difficilis Cockerell, Pseudaonidia duplex (Cockerell), Chrysomphalus aonidum L., (Tachikawa 1958; Liao et al. 1987); Lepidosaphes ulmi, Quadraspidiotus gigas, (Ferrière 1965); Melanaspis obscura (Comstock), (Darling & Johnson 1984); Quadraspidiotus perniciosus [apparently on apple trees], (Hayat 1998). Aleyrodidae: ? Aleurolobus barodensis on Saccharum officinarum, (Hayat 1998). Aphelinidae: ? hyperparasitoid of Aphytis diaspidis (Howard), (Compere 1926).

  • DISTRIBUTION

    China (Fujian, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Shanxi, Henan), USA, Japan, Argentina, Italy, Yugoslavia, France, India.

  • Figs. 18–21.

    Ablerus perspeciosus (female). 18. Antenna; 19. forewing; 20. mesosoma; 21. ovipositor.

    f18_395.jpg

    9. Ablerus pexus (Huang, 1994)

  • Azotus pexus Huang, 1994: 8, 130. Holotype ♀. China: Fujian (FAFU).

    Ablerus pexus (Huang, 1994): Xu & Huang, 2004: 332.

  • MATERIAL

    China. Fujian: Holotype ♀, Chong'an, Sangang, 20-XI-1989, Jia-She Wang, by yellow pan trap (FAFU).

  • MALE

    Unknown.

  • HOST

    Unknown.

  • DISTRIBUTION

    China (Fujian).

  • REMARKS

    Ablerus pexus is similar to Ablerus plesius (Annecke & Insley, 1970), from which it is separated by the following characters: antenna with F1 basally white and apically dark brown, longer than the pedicel and about as long as F2; forewings subapically with different form of transverse stripe, and basally with relatively numerous, black and coarse setae.

  • 10. Ablerus promacchiae Viggiani & Ren, 1993

  • Ablerus promacchiae Viggiani & Ren, 1993: 220. Holotype ♀. China: Guangdong (GEIG); Paratype 1 ♀ in IEUN.

  • MATERIAL

    No specimens examined, and originally described from Guangdong and Guangxi, China, by Viggiani & Ren (1993).

  • HOST

    Unknown.

  • DISTRIBUTION

    China (Guangdong, Guangxi).

  • REMARKS

    Ablerus promacchiae resembles Ablerus macchiae (Annecke & Insley, 1970) but is distinguished from the latter by the following characters: antenna with F1 not longer than F2, mid-lobe of mesoscutum with only 2 setae, narrower forewings and longer fringe (Viggiani & Ren 1993).

  • 11. Ablerus williamsi (Annecke & Insley, 1970)

  • Azotus williamsi Annecke & Insley, 1970: 244. Holotype ♀. Paratypes 1 ♀, 2 ♂♂. Mauritius: Tamarin (PPRI).

    Ablerus williamsi (Annecke & Insley, 1970): Hayat, 1994: 84.

  • MATERIAL

    China. Fujian: 1 ♀, Shaxian, 1980, Nai-Quan Lin, by sweeping.

  • HOST

    The following host has been recorded: Diaspididae: Aulacaspis tegalensis, (Annecke & Insley 1970).

  • DISTRIBUTION

    China (Fujian), Mauritius.

  • Acknowledgments

    We are grateful to Cheng-De Li (Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China) for providing the literature and to Hui Zhang (FAFU) for photographing the pictures. This project was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31101495), Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province (2012J01084), and Commonwealth Industry Scientific Research Fund, China (201103002).

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    Zhu Hong Wang, Jian Huang, and Andrew Polaszek "The Species of Genus Ablerus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Azotidae) from China, with Description of a New Species," Florida Entomologist 99(3), 395-405, (1 September 2016). https://doi.org/10.1653/024.099.0310
    Published: 1 September 2016
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