Tropical soda apple is a perennial invasive weed species that has become a serious problem in both agricultural and natural areas of the southeastern United States. A field survey was conducted at a ranch in Madison County, Florida, to assess the effect of sun and shade conditions on the abundance and feeding activity of Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on tropical soda apple. The results revealed that beetle abundance and their feeding damage were greater on plants growing in full sun exposure than on plants growing in shaded habitat.
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Vol. 99 • No. 3