The striped hyaena Hyaena hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758) is globally categorised as “Near Threatened” and is nearly extinct in the Caucasus. In Armenia, the last published record dates back to 1925 and the last trustworthy sighting was in the late 1940s. Here, a dead hyaena is described which was found in 2010 near the Nrnadzor village in the extreme south of Armenia. Its skull was investigated, age was estimated by several methods (cementum layers, tooth eruption, fusion of cranial sutures, pulp cavity closure and tooth wear) and sex was determined from the sagittal, occipital and nuchal crests and by genotyping of skin DNA. The specimen was found out to be a female aged ca. 17–18 months. As this is the age of disperal and females play a pivotal role in the social life of this carnivore, the possibilities for recolonization and establishment of hyaena population in the Meghri district of southern Armenia are discussed. This area holds sufficient prey base and suitable arid landscapes for survival of this species. The recent record of another individual's fresh tracks on sand near Nrnadzor supports this hypothesis. Usability of different techniques of sex determination and age estimation in the striped hyaena is considered.
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