In this study, we re-evaluated historical demography of the Eurasian green woodpecker (Picus viridis) on the basis of previously published multi-locus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data and ecological niche modelling. We particularly aimed to test glacial refugia hypothesis during climatic oscillations of the late Quaternary for the Eurasian green woodpecker. Our results indicate that the Eurasian green woodpecker was sensitive to the effects of climate change. Prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (22000 years ago), the population contraction started and the Eurasian green woodpecker restricted its range to southern Europe (including France), Anatolia, and the Caucasus/Caspian region, and, afterwards, substantially expanded its range from this restricted area to its present range around 14500 years before present. Therefore, during the Last Glacial Maximum, we recognize a single large refugium for this species, located in southern Europe (including France), Anatolia, and the Caucasus/Caspian region.
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Vol. 64 • No. 3