Ceraclea joannae, new species, feeds on the freshwater snail Somatogyrus virginicus Walker (Hydrobiidae). Our study is the first report of prey other than sponges for a Ceraclea species and the first report of snail predation by Trichoptera larvae in North America. Ceraclea joannae larvae and adults resemble those of C. diluta (Hagen); however, the larva of the new species has a dark head, sickle-shaped mandibles, and a dark pronotum except for a pair of unique, conspicuous, oblique, white bands; the male differs in the slightly longer superior appendages, more nearly straight ventral margins of tergum X, slightly stouter inferior appendages, and the more-tapered apex and less-pronounced ventral notch of the phallus. This new species of Ceraclea is known from only 3.2 km of the Little River (Montgomery County, North Carolina, USA), downstream of the developing town of Asheboro. Because of its rarity and limited distribution, Ceraclea joannae may be highly vulnerable to changes in water or habitat quality.
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