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16 February 2010 Evolution of terrestrial habitat in Manophylax species (Trichoptera:Apataniidae), with a new species from Alaska
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Abstract
The genus Manophylax (Trichoptera:Apataniidae) contains 3 species from the Nearctic Region and 3 species from Japan. A 7th species of Manophylax new for science is described and illustrated from Alaska. Habitats of larvae and pupae of the different Manophylax species are either mostly hygropetric or mostly terrestrial. Phylogenetic analysis infers 3 principal species groups occurring in the eastern and western Nearctic and eastern Palearctic Biogeographic Regions. The habitat of the western Nearctic M. annulatus Species Group is mostly hygropetric and that of the eastern Nearctic M. altus and eastern Palearctic M. futabae Species Groups are mostly terrestrial. The phylogeny suggests that the mostly terrestrial habitat evolved through a mostly hygropetric habitat. The phylogeny also implies that the eastern Nearctic and eastern Palearctic species share a more recent common ancestor than they share with the western Nearctic species, a result further supporting a commonly observed historical biogeographic pattern for these regions. Madeophylax Huryn and Wallace is redefined as a subgenus of Manophylax Wiggins, including the species of the M. altus and M. futabae Species Groups. Keys to adult males, females, larvae, and pupae of the 4 North American species of Manophylax are included.
Suvdtsetseg Chuluunbat, John C. Morse, Jo Anna L. Lessard, M. Eric Benbow, Matthew D. Wesener and John Hudson "Evolution of terrestrial habitat in Manophylax species (Trichoptera:Apataniidae), with a new species from Alaska," Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29(2), (16 February 2010). https://doi.org/10.1899/09-106.1
Received: 5 December 2008; Accepted: 1 October 2009; Published: 16 February 2010
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