When 2 populations are mixed for whatever reason, the outcome can be difficult to predict. In 1993, 2 populations of an atyid shrimp (Paratya australiensis:Atyidae) from different subcatchments of the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia, were mixed as a result of a translocation. At the time, they were thought to represent slightly divergent populations of a single species. However, subsequent molecular analysis showed that they were significantly divergent. An analysis of patterns at one of the sites in 2001 suggested that the translocated lineage might be sending the resident population extinct in one of the streams. Analysis of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and 3 allozyme loci indicated that the explanation for the outcome might be related to asymmetrical hybridization and nonviability of hybrids between resident females and translocated males. We present data for 2002 and an analysis of samples that had been collected prior to the 2001 study, but not analyzed. We tested 3 hypotheses: 1) the translocated genotypes would continue to increase in relative frequency at sites above the translocation site because their site of origin was at higher altitudes, to which they were expected to be better adapted; 2) at intermediate sites, the relative frequency of translocated alleles in juveniles would increase relative to in their parents; and 3) resident genotypes would survive better than translocated genotypes within a generation, especially at lower and intermediate elevations. Translocated genotypes increased extremely rapidly at the most upstream site. Consistent evidence was present for higher relative frequency of translocated alleles in juveniles relative to their parents, both in the generation following the 2001 study and in the pre-2001 samples. With the exception of in the upstream site, translocated genotypes had lower fitness within a generation than resident genotypes. Thus, the translocated genotypes had a higher reproductive success but were less well adapted to their local environment than residents, a situation that decreased population fitness overall. Such an outcome demonstrates a rarely reported effect of translocations and mixing of divergent lineages.
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