Boev Z. & Spassov N. 2009. — First record of ostriches (Aves, Struthioniformes, Struthionidae) from the late Miocene of Bulgaria with taxonomic and zoogeographic discussion. Geodiversitas 31 (3): 493-507.
We describe two new fossils, the distal end of a right tarsometatarsus and a proximal pedal phalanx of the left third toe, from two sites in southwestern Bulgaria: Kalimantsi (middle Turolian) and Hadzhidimovo-2 (MN 11/12 boundary). These specimens are compared to Neogene-Quaternary ostriches, and are referred to Struthio cf. karatheodoris. A general overview of Neogene-Quaternary ostrich specimens, a taxonomic discussion of late Miocene Eurasian struthionid taxa, and the ecological and Zoogeographic implications of the new specimens are presented.