The gadid fish Palimphemus anceps Kner, 1862 is redescribed in detail based on 43 specimens from the Miocene deposits of St. Margarethen, in the Eisenstadt-Sopron Basin, Burgenland, Austria. The morphoanatomical analysis of the material referred to Palimphemus anceps revealed that it can be distinguished from other members of the family Gadidae Rafinesque, 1810 by a unique combination of characters, including: elongated and laterally compressed body, head length about 1/3 of SL, large massive neurocranium with outer margins of the frontals thickened and ornamented by longitudinal pits and ridges along the ventral surface, hyomandibula with large ventrally directed preopercular process, opercle with a thick horizontal rib arising from the articular condyle, anal-fin insertion well behind the first dorsal-fin origin; preanal distance exceeding the base length of the first anal fin, length of the first anal-fin base reduced, 45–46 (18 27/28) vertebrae, third dorsal fin with 17–21 rays, first anal fin with 18–21 rays, second anal fin with 18–19 rays, caudal fin with 41–43 rays, and pectoral fin with 15–18 rays. Palimphemus anceps appears to be a basal gadine closely related to the genus Micromesistius Gill, 1867. Like other basal gadine genera — Gadiculus Guichenot, 1850, Micromesistius and Trisopterus Rafinesque, 1814 — Palimphemus anceps possibly was a thermophilous gadid that inhabited the shallow waters of the central Paratethys during the Middle Miocene.
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Vol. 34 • No. 3