Phylogenetic analyses of molecular and morphological data have shown the genus Banisteriopsis to be polyphyletic and the genus Diplopterys to be nested within Banisteriopsis subg. Pleiopterys, which is not in the clade that contains the type of the name Banisteriopsis. Therefore, it is necessary to take up the name Diplopterys for the small genus formerly called that plus subg. Pleiopterys of Banisteriopsis. A description of the amplified genus Diplopterys is provided, two new species are described (D. bahiana and D. carvalhoi), and the following new combinations in Diplopterys are proposed, with all combinations by W. R. Anderson and C. Cav. Davis: D. amplectens, D. cachimbensis, D. caduciflora, D. cristata, D. erianthera, D. heterostyla, D. hypericifolia, D. krukoffii, D. leiocarpa, D. longialata, D. lucida, D. lutea, D. nigrescens, D. nutans, D. patula, D. peruviana, D. platyptera, D. populifolia, D. pubipetala, D. rondoniensis, D. schunkei, D. sepium, D. valvata, D. virgultosa, and D. woytkowskii. Illustrations are provided for D. bahiana, D. cabrerana, D. carvalhoi, D. pauciflora, D. pubipetala, and D. valvata.
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