Hispaniolanthus (Capparaceae), a new genus segregated from Capparis, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by short simple hairs, minute stipules, spiral phyllotaxy, juvenile individuals with linear leaf blades, mature individuals with their young leaves conduplicate, flowers axillary and subterminal, solitary and/or rarely paired, without peduncles and on remarkably long-pedicels. The calyx is decussate with closed aestivation, bearing sepals similar in size to that of the petals, four erect to divergent nectary scales, and ca. 30 to 45 stamens on short filaments, 1.5–2.0 cm long. Hispaniolanthus is a monospecific genus known only from dry forests of western Haití, facing the Island of Gonaïves. It is represented by the new combination herewith transferred from Capparis: Hispaniolanthus dolichopodus. Its putative relationships with the morphologically closer genera of Capparaceae are discussed.
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