Two annonaceous tree species, Xylopia kuchingensis and X. orestera, are described from Borneo. Xylopia kuchingensis occurs in low-elevation swamp forest in the vicinity of Kuching, Sarawak, East Malaysia, and resembles X. coriifolia in its thick leaves and swamp-forest habitat. It may be distinguished from X. malayana, which it resembles in its acuminate leaves, short flower pedicels, long petals, and broad monocarps, by the larger and thicker leaves that are glaucous beneath. Xylopia orestera was collected in central Sarawak, where it occurs in montane forest at 980–1200 m. This species has long flower pedicels, spreading sepals, and moniliform monocarps similar to those of both X. ferruginea and X. coriifolia, but with much smaller leaves, shorter petals, and fewer seeds per monocarp. It also resembles X. pulchella of Borneo, but has longer flower pedicels and linear moniliform monocarps rather than the short oblong monocarps of that species.
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